How A Solar Panel Works?

Solar panel is used for the production of electricity for home. It uses breakthrough technology to convert light from the sun into electricity.

If you are wondering how this system works, we lay out the principles and the mechanism for your better understanding.

Let’s get to it.

The Principle

solar panel

To figure out how exactly the solar panel works, you need to understand how the solar panel is being made. 

Most solar panels today use silicon type, as it is a suitable material to build to generate electricity and silicon is one of the planet elements.

This built solar panel is made up of numerous smaller units of photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic cells are placed next to one another under the glass. 

Here, photovoltaic cells have two-semi conduction silicon materials that are used in microelectronics. The panels are built with those three layers, which are silicon cells, a metal frame and wiring. 

However, silicon is quite expensive, thus most home solar panels will use something cheaper and built similar to the silicone one, such as copper, indium, gallium and selenide.

They are not as high quality as silicon material, but they still help to provide sufficient power at a reasonable cost.

Now, how does it work?

Solar panels work when it allows photons to free release itself from atoms, and produce an electricity flow for the starter.

These photovoltaic cells are introduced to help alter the electrical properties of the silicon atoms.

Addition to that, those cells are going to be the component that absorbs sunlight during daylight and afterwards convert them into electricity. 

How is that possible?

The visible sunlight is composed of the invisible particles that are called photons. These photons are the one that has energy but contain zero mass. 

The photons will collide with each other while their energy converted them to other forms, which depends on what kind of atoms they encounter with at that time. 

solar panel

To make this photovoltaic work, it is necessary for two opposite poles to be charged in a magnetic field. One layer is positively charged, while the other negatively charged.

Thus, when photons from sunlight hit the electron free and strike a photovoltaic solar cell, it will push the electron out loosely of the silicon junction and turn them into an electric current.

Which means that the metal conductive plates collect those electrons and transfer them to the bundle of wires before electrons flow like other electricity sources.

Now, you own a solar panel that works efficiently to convert sunlight into electricity, which is direct current (DC) electricity, and not the Alternative current (AC) electricity for most homes.

Thus, we need an inverter to convert DC electricity into AC as these inverters are configured to the whole system or as micro inverters attached behind the panels instead.

You might want to know everything about solar energy by reading this article here.

Do Solar Panels Work On Cloudy Days?

solar panel

The answer will be yes, it’s still going to work as usual. However, they might produce less power which depends on the conditions of your solar panel, its quality and the efficiency.

As long as the solar panel is able to capture light and react to the visible light spectrum, then it is more than enough for solar panels to start to produce electricity. 

But still, the stronger the light is, the more efficient the solar panel works in the future to generate the electric current.

Does It Need To Be Hot For Solar Panels To Work?

solar panel

It is indeed true that solar panels require more light to generate more electricity especially when it is a summer season. This also seems like solar panels need warmer weather too.

However, it is truly unnecessary for that, as long as the solar panel received a light.

In fact, if solar panels experience these both hot and cold condition, the solar panels might work less efficient compare to usual days.

But still, you should know that solar radiation can penetrate the clouds. Which means that solar can actually work on cold and cloudy days, as it does not necessarily need hot weather to generate electricity.

If you are looking for solar panels to be built on your house roof, you might want to check out solar panels from PITECH. 


Progressive Impact Technology Sdn Bhd (PITECH) is 100% Bumiputera company which focuses on areas such as Plant Information, Laboratory Information, Security Management Systems & DCS and Remote Terminal Unit (RTU).

Pitech’s solar power interconnection renewable energy offer:

•Remote Terminal Unit

•Switch gear

•Control Relay Panel

•Cable & Fibre Interconnection

•Power Plant Controller

• SCADA System


If you are interested and have any inquiries regarding our product and services, you may contact us right away.

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