Electric Power System: The Definitive Guide

When it comes to harnessing electricity for everyday use, we should mention about power system.

Here we will deep dive into the basics and the application of this system to generate electrical energy to power up the nation.

Let’s dive right in.

What Is The Electric Power System?

The electric or electrical power system is a network of millions of electrical components that are designed to transmit and distribute electrical energy

This system is used to supply electricity to homes and facilities all around the world.

This system can be divided into several structures:

The Structure

The system is divided into different sub-systems.

1. Generating Substation

This substation is responsible for converting all other forms of energy (coal, nuclear energy, water, etc.) to electrical energy or electrical power. 

It is converted by using generators that are located in power plants.

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2. Transmission Substation

The function of this substation is to transport the generated electrical power from the generation substation to the distribution substation.

The essential components of the transmission are high voltage power lines and towers.

3. Sub-Transmission Substation

The sub-transmission substations are electrical circuits that transform high to low voltage according to the requirement of the consumer.

It carries voltages that have been reduced from the main transmission line system.

The sub-transmission system serves in industrial or large commercial operations.

4. Distribution Substation

This is the last part. This substation connects consumers of a certain area to its major power source.

This substation is responsible for distributing the electricity to the consumers. It usually distributes the power to the small consumers.

Components of Power Systems

The components of this type of system are as follows:

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a) Supplies

All the power systems have one or more power sources. This includes coal, water, nuclear energy, wind and many more.

Each power supply has its own way of operation and that affects the way that a certain power station is handled. It will differ depending on the source.

b) Loads

An electrical load is an electrical component that consumes electric power. The system supplies energy to the loads that perform a function.

Loads can range from household electrical appliances to heavy industrial machinery. Loads usually expect a certain voltage based on the type of appliance.

c) Conductors

Conductors are a type of material that carries electrical power from the generators to the load. Conductors may be placed either underground or overhead.

There are many factors considered when choosing a particular type of conductor. Some of the factors include cost, strength and transmission loss.

Some conductors include using copper, aluminium, gold and silver.

d) Capacitors and Reactors

A capacitor is an electrical component that is used to store electrical energy. It used to reduce demands on the electric system.

A reactor is used to limit rushes of current flow. It will also reduce the limit fault currents that may occur in generators.

e) Power Electronics

Power electronics are devices that help control the flow of electrical energy. They are able to switch the quantity of power at the order of nanoseconds.

They are also used in many modern technologies such as hybrid vehicles, wind turbines and electric railway systems.

f) Protective Devices

Protective devices are devices that help prevent injury or substantial damage during failures.

One of the most frequently used protective devices is the fuse. When the carrying capacity exceeds the limit, the fuse element melts which stops the circuit.

Some of the devices are different for residential areas and the industry as the function and capacity needed may be different.

g) SCADA Systems

SCADA stands for supervisory control and data acquisition.

Some of its functions include maintaining generator output, data acquisition and alarms. 

Nowadays, due to the advancement of SCADA systems, the consoles do not have to be near the plant as it can be controlled by using computers.

How Does a Power System Work?

This system is one of the most important things in the world. But how does it actually work? Let’s move on with the power system analysis to find out more.

As mentioned earlier, it is a network that is made up of different substations that serves its own function. 

Each function is crucial as it cannot operate without one another.  After electricity is generated in the first step, it will have to go through transmission and then distributed to consumers.

Electricity is transmitted through power lines at a very high voltage. If the voltage is higher, there will be less loss of electricity during the transmission.

Once it reaches the consumers, transformers will alter the high voltage electricity to the suitable amount for distribution to homes and other facilities.

The Usage

The usage of the electrical power system is very different based on the type and the intended function. There are two types which are as follows: 

1. Residential Power Systems

In residential areas, only low voltage is required. This is because the electricity needed for this certain area is not that high.

Safety measures such as sockets with protective earth are also in place to ensure no accidents occur to anyone who is handling a certain appliance. The measures do vary based on location.

There have been changes in recent years to improve this system.

2. Commercial Power Systems

Places such as shopping complexes or skyscrapers will require more electricity than residential areas. The electrical designs must be in great detail to ensure no problems occur.

Some large commercial institutions will have another sub electrical panel for better power system protection and efficiency. 

For countries that are typically hot and humid like Malaysia, the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) unit is an example of a crucial commercial appliance.

In conclusion, the electric power system is a crucial aspect that people need to know more about due to its importance in our lives.

If you are looking for a reliable control system solution in Malaysia, you should go for PITECH.

PITECH provides technology solution Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) to monitor and control the performance of TNB substation remotely. It is called the RTU C50.

It can also transmit the critical signal to the Control Centre (NLDC). It is designed with a flexibility that allows users to configure RTUs into different configurations.

The advantages of choosing the RTU C50 are:

  • Distributed processing for high availability and diversity in Electric Power Substation architectures
  • Flexible Power Supply
  • Highly reliable operation over a wide temperature and electrical noise ranges
  • Support 28, 48 & 129 V DC Source
  • Optonet (Link to other RTU)
  • I/O Modules

So what are you waiting for? Choosing Progressive Impact Technology Sdn Bhd is the perfect solution for you.

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